How to recognize peer-reviewed (refereed) journals
In many cases professors will require that students utilize articles from "peer-reviewed" journals. Sometimes the phrases "refereed journals" or "scholarly journals" are used to describe the same type of journals. But what are peer-reviewed (or refereed or scholarly) journal articles, and why do faculty require their use?
Three categories of information resources:
- Newspapers and magazines containing news - Articles are written by reporters who may or may not be experts in the field of the article. Consequently, articles may contain incorrect information.
- Journals containing articles written by academics and/or professionals -- Although the articles are written by "experts," any particular "expert" may have some ideas that are really "out there!"
- Peer-reviewed (refereed or scholarly) journals - Articles are written by experts and are reviewed by several other experts in the field before the article is published in the journal in order to insure the article's quality. (The article is more likely to be scientifically valid, reach reasonable conclusions, etc.) In most cases the reviewers do not know who the author of the article is, so that the article succeeds or fails on its own merit, not the reputation of the expert.
Not all information in a peer-reviewed journal is actually refereed, or reviewed. For example, editorials, letters to the editor, book reviews, and other types of information don't count as articles, and may not be accepted by your professor.
How do you determine whether an article qualifies as being a peer-reviewed journal article?
First, you need to look for actual articles, excluding those types of information that are not. Then, you need to be able to identify which journals are peer-reviewed. There are generally four methods for doing this:
- Limiting a database search to peer-reviewed journals only.
Some databases allow you to limit searches for articles to peer reviewed journals only. For example, Academic Search Premier has this feature on the initial search screen - click on the pertinent box to limit the search. In some databases you may have to go to an "advanced" or "expert" search screen to do this. Remember, many databases do not allow you to limit your search in this way.
- Checking in the database Ulrichsweb.com to determine if the journal is indicated as being peer-reviewed.
If you cannot limit your initial search to peer-reviewed journals, you will need to check to see if the source of an article is a peer-reviewed journal. This can be done by searching the database Ulrichsweb.com. From the Online Resources box in RamPort, go to the alphabetical listing of databases and click on the "U". Select Ulrichsweb.com. Choose the Quick Search for "Title (Exact)". Type in the EXACT title of the source journal. (Note: in Ulrichsweb.com, unlike most other databases, you must type the exact title INCLUDING ANY INITIAL A, AN, or THE in the title. For example, searching for The Chronicle of Higher Education as "Chronicle of Higher Education" is incorrect – the initial "The" must be included.) If the original search is not successful, you may want to try an additional Quick Search using the "Title (Keyword)" option. If the journal you are interested in is not found, you will need to utilize Method C below. If your journal title IS displayed, check to see if the journal is indicated as being refereed by having the symbol next to the title.
- Examining the publication to see if it is peer-reviewed.
If by using the first two methods you were unable to identify if a journal (and an article therein) is peer-reviewed, you may then need to examine the journal PHYSICALLY to determine if it is peer-reviewed. This method is not always successful with resources available only online, and is not recommended in this latter situation. The following steps are suggested:
- Locate the journal in the Library, and remove the most current entire year’s issues from the shelf.
- Locate the masthead of the publication. This oftentimes consists of a box towards either the front or the end of the periodical, and contains publication information such as the editors of the journal, the publisher, the place of publication, the subscription cost and similar information.
- Does the journal say that it is peer-reviewed? If so, you're done! If not...see step 4 below.
- Check in and around the masthead to locate the method for submitting articles to the publication.If you find information similar to "to submit articles, send three copies…", the journal is probably peer-reviewed. In this case, you are inferring that the publication is then going to send the multiple copies of the article to the journal's reviewers. This may not always be the case, so relying upon this criterion alone may prove inaccurate.
- If you do not see this type of statement in the first issue of the journal that you look at, examine the remaining journals to see if this information is included. Sometimes publications will include this information in only a single issue a year.
- Is it scholarly, using technical terminology? Does the article format approximate the following - abstract, literature review, methodology, results, conclusion, and references? Are the articles written by scholarly researchers in the field that the periodical pertains to? Is advertising non-existent, or kept to a minimum? Are there references listed in footnotes or bibliographies? If you answered yes to all these questions , the journal may very well be peer-reviewed. This determination would be strengthened by having met the previous criterion of a multiple-copies submission requirement. If you answered these questions no, the journal is probably not peer-reviewed.
- Find the official Web site on the Internet, and check to see if it states that the journal is peer-reviewed. Be careful to use the official site (often located at the journal publisher's Web site), and, even then, information could potentially be "inaccurate."
If you have used the previous four methods in trying to determine if an article is from a peer-reviewed journal and are still unsure, speak to your instructor.