Abundances of the Elements in the Universe, the Earth, and the Human Body

1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A
(1) (2) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18)
3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 1B 2B
(3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La   Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac   Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uuq
6   Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
7   Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

 

Abundances of the Elements in the Universe

Atomic

Number

Symbol

Name

Relative

Abundance

Abundance in

the Universe

(parts per billion)

1 H Hydrogen 1 750,000,000
2 He Helium 2 230,000,000
8 O Oxygen 3 10,000,000
6 C Carbon 4 5,000,000
10 Ne Neon 5 1,300,000
26 Fe Iron 6 1,100,000
7 N Nitrogen 7 1,000,000
14 Si Silicon 8 700,000
12 Mg Magnesium 9 600,000
16 S Sulfur 10 500,000
18 Ar Argon 11 200,000
20 Ca Calcium 12 70,000
28 Ni Nickel 13 60,000
13 Al Aluminum 14 50,000
11 Na Sodium 15 20,000
24 Cr Chromium 16 15,000
25 Mn Manganese 17 8,000
15 P Phosphorus 18 7,000
19 K Potassium 19 3,000
22 Ti Titanium 20 3,000
27 Co Cobalt 21 3,000
17 Cl Chlorine 22 1,000
23 V Vanadium 23 1,000
9 F Fluorine 24 400
30 Zn Zinc 25 300
32 Ge Germanium 26 200
29 Cu Copper 27 60
40 Zr Zirconium 28 50
36 Kr Krypton 29 40
38 Sr Strontium 30 40
21 Sc Scandium 31 30
34 Se Selenium 32 30
31 Ga Gallium 33 10
37 Rb Rubidium 34 10
54 Xe Xenon 35 10
56 Ba Barium 36 10
58 Ce Cerium 37 10
60 Nd Neodymium 38 10
82 Pb Lead 39 10
52 Te Tellurium 40 9
33 As Arsenic 41 8
35 Br Bromine 42 7
39 Y Yttrium 43 7
3 Li Lithium 44 6
42 Mo Molybdenum 45 5
62 Sm Samarium 46 5
78 Pt Platinum 47 5
44 Ru Ruthenium 48 4
50 Sn Tin 49 4
76 Os Osmium 50 3
41 Nb Niobium 51 2
46 Pd Palladium 52 2
48 Cd Cadmium 53 2
57 La Lanthanum 54 2
59 Pr Praseodymium 55 2
64 Gd Gadolinium 56 2
66 Dy Dysprosium 57 2
68 Er Erbium 58 2
70 Yb Ytterbium 59 2
77 Ir Iridium 60 2
4 Be Beryllium 61 1
5 B Boron 62 1
53 I Iodine 63 1
80 Hg Mercury 64 1
55 Cs Cesium 65 0.8
72 Hf Hafnium 66 0.7
83 Bi Bismuth 67 0.7
45 Rh Rhodium 68 0.6
47 Ag Silver 69 0.6
79 Au Gold 70 0.6
63 Eu Europium 71 0.5
65 Tb Terbium 72 0.5
67 Ho Holmium 73 0.5
74 W Tungsten 74 0.5
81 Tl Thallium 75 0.5
51 Sb Antimony 76 0.4
90 Th Thorium 77 0.4
49 In Indium 78 0.3
75 Re Rhenium 79 0.2
92 U Uranium 80 0.2
69 Tm Thulium 81 0.1
71 Lu Lutetium 82 0.1
73 Ta Tantalum 83 0.08
The following elements are radioactive, and are found
in only trace amounts in the Universe at large
89 Ac Actinium —— traces
85 At Astatine —— traces
87 Fr Francium —— traces
93 Np Neptunium —— traces
94 Pu Plutonium —— traces
84 Po Polonium —— traces
61 Pm Promethium —— traces
91 Pa Protactinium —— traces
88 Ra Radium —— traces
86 Rn Radon —— traces
43 Tc Technetium —— traces
The following elements are produced artificially,
and are not found naturally in the Universe
95 Am Americium —— 0
97 Bk Berkelium —— 0
107 Bh Bohrium —— 0
98 Cf Californium —— 0
96 Cm Curium —— 0
110 Ds Darmstadtium —— 0
105 Db Dubnium —— 0
99 Es Einsteinium —— 0
100 Fm Fermium —— 0
108 Hs Hassium —— 0
103 Lr Lawrencium —— 0
109 Mt Meitnerium —— 0
101 Md Mendelevium —— 0
102 No Nobelium —— 0
111 Rg Roentgenium —— 0
104 Rf Rutherfordium —— 0
106 Sg Seaborgium —— 0
112 Uub Ununbiium —— 0
114 Uuq Ununquadium —— 0

Data taken from Web Elements TM

 

 

 

Abundances of the Elements in the Earth's Atmosphere

Atomic

Number

Symbol

Name

Abundance in Earth's Atmosphere

(by volume)

7

N

Nitrogen

78.09% (780,900 ppm)

8

O

Oxygen

20.95% (209,500 ppm)

18

Ar

Argon

0.93% (9,300 ppm)

1

H

Hydrogen

0.5 ppm as H2

variable as H2O(g)

6

C

Carbon

350 ppm as CO2

1.6 ppm as CH4

0.25 ppm as CO

17

Cl

Chlorine

variable; traces in sea spray and

organochlorine compounds

10

Ne

Neon

18 ppm

2

He

Helium

5.2 ppm

36

Kr

Krypton

1.14 ppm

54

Xe

Xenon

0.086 ppm

9

F

Fluorine

610-6 ppm as organofluorine compounds

86 Rn Radon 110-15 ppm

Data taken from John Emsley, Nature's Building Blocks:  An A-Z Guide to the Elements.  Oxford:  Oxford University Press, 2001 and John Emsley, The Elements, 3rd edition.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1998.

 

 

Abundances of the Elements in the Earth's Crust, Mantle, and Core

Atomic

Number

Symbol

Name

Relative

Abundance

in Crust

Crust

(by mass)

Mantle

(by mass)

Core

(by mass)

8

O

Oxygen

1

47.4% (474,000 ppm)

44.8%  

14

Si

Silicon

2

27.7% (277,000 ppm)

21.5%  

13

Al

Aluminum

3

8.2% (82,000 ppm)

2.2%  

26

Fe

Iron

4

4.1% (41,000 ppm)

5.8% 80-85%

20

Ca

Calcium

5

4.1% (41,000 ppm)

2.3%  

11

Na

Sodium

6

2.3% (23,000 ppm)

0.3%  

12

Mg

Magnesium

7

2.3% (23,000 ppm)

22.8%  

19

K

Potassium

8

2.1% (21,000 ppm)

0.03%  

22

Ti

Titanium

9

0.56 % (5,600 ppm)

   

1

H

Hydrogen

10

0.152% (1,520 ppm)

   

15

P

Phosphorus

11

0.1% (1000 ppm)

   

25

Mn

Manganese

12

0.95% (950 ppm)

   

9

F

Fluorine

13

0.95% (950 ppm)

   

56

Ba

Barium

14

500 ppm

   

6

C

Carbon

15

480 ppm

   

38

Sr

Strontium

16

370 ppm

   

16

S

Sulfur

17

260 ppm

   

40

Zr

Zirconium

18

190 ppm

   

23

V

Vanadium

19

160 ppm

   

17

Cl

Chlorine

20

130 ppm

   

24

Cr

Chromium

21

100 ppm

   

37

Rb

Rubidium

22

90 ppm

   

28

Ni

Nickel

23

80 ppm

  5-10%

30

Zn

Zinc

24

75 ppm

   

58

Ce

Cerium

25

68 ppm

   

29

Cu

Copper

26

50 ppm

   

60

Nd

Neodymium

27

38 ppm

   

57

La

Lanthanum

28

32 ppm

   

39

Y

Yttrium

29

30 ppm

   

7

N

Nitrogen

30

25 ppm

   

3

Li

Lithium

31

20 ppm

   

27

Co

Cobalt

32

20 ppm

   

41

Nb

Niobium

33

20 ppm

   

31

Ga

Gallium

34

18 ppm

   

21

Sc

Scandium

35

16 ppm

   

82

Pb

Lead

36

14 ppm

   

90

Th

Thorium

37

12 ppm

   

5

B

Boron

38

10 ppm

   

59

Pr

Praseodymium

39

9.5 ppm

   

62

Sm

Samarium

40

7.9 ppm

   

64

Gd

Gadolinium

41

7.7 ppm

   

66

Dy

Dysprosium

42

6 ppm

   

70

Yb

Ytterbium

43

5.3 ppm

   

68

Er

Erbium

44

3.8 ppm

   

72

Hf

Hafnium

45

3.3 ppm

   

55

Cs

Cesium

46

3 ppm

   

4

Be

Beryllium

47

2.6 ppm

   

92

U

Uranium

48

2.4 ppm

   

50

Sn

Tin

49

2.2 ppm

   

63

Eu

Europium

50

2.1 ppm

   

73

Ta

Tantalum

51

2 ppm

   

32

Ge

Germanium

52

1.8 ppm

   

33

As

Arsenic

53

1.5 ppm

   

42

Mo

Molybdenum

54

1.5 ppm

   

67

Ho

Holmium

55

1.4 ppm

   

18

Ar

Argon

56

1.2 ppm

   

65

Tb

Terbium

57

1.1 ppb

   

74

W

Tungsten

58

1 ppm

   

81

Tl

Thallium

59

0.6 ppm

   

71

Lu

Lutetium

60

0.51 ppm

   

69

Tm

Thulium

61

0.48 ppm

   

35

Br

Bromine

62

0.37 ppm

   

51

Sb

Antimony

63

0.2 ppm

   

53

I

Iodine

64

0.14 ppm

   

48

Cd

Cadmium

65

0.11 ppm

   

47

Ag

Silver

66

0.07 ppm (70 ppb)

   

34

Se

Selenium

67

0.05 ppm (50 ppb)

   

80

Hg

Mercury

68

0.05 ppm (50 ppb)

   

49

In

Indium

69

0.049 ppm (49 ppb)

   

83

Bi

Bismuth

70

0.048 ppm (48 ppb)

   

2

He

Helium

71

0.008 ppm (8 ppb)

   

52

Te

Tellurium

72

0.005 ppm (5 ppb)

   

79

Au

Gold

73

0.0011 ppm (1.1 ppb)

   

44

Ru

Ruthenium

74

0.001 ppm (1 ppb)

   

78

Pt

Platinum

75

0.001 ppm (1 ppb)

   

46

Pd

Palladium

76

610-4 ppm (0.6 ppb)

   

75

Re

Rhenium

77

410-4 ppm (0.4 ppb)

   

45

Rh

Rhodium

78

210-4 ppm (0.2 ppb)

   

76

Os

Osmium

79

110-4 ppm (0.1 ppb)

   

10

Ne

Neon

80

710-5 ppm (70 ppt)

   

36

Kr

Krypton

81

110-5 ppm (10 ppt)

   

77

Ir

Iridium

82

310-6 ppm (3 ppt)

   

54

Xe

Xenon

83

210-6 ppm (2 ppt)

   

88

Ra

Radium

84

610-7 ppm (0.6 ppt)

   

The following elements are radioactive, and are found  in only trace amounts on the Earth

89

Ac

Actinium

——

traces

   

85

At

Astatine

——

traces

   

87

Fr

Francium

——

traces

   

93

Np

Neptunium

——

traces

   

94

Pu

Plutonium

——

traces

   

84

Po

Polonium

——

traces

   

61

Pm

Promethium

——

traces

   

91

Pa

Protactinium

——

traces

   

86

Rn

Radon

——

traces

   

43

Tc

Technetium

——

traces

   

The following elements are produced artificially, and are not found naturally on the Earth

95

Am

Americium

——

none

   

97

Bk

Berkelium

——

none

   

107

Bh

Bohrium

——

none

   

98

Cf

Californium

——

none

   

96

Cm

Curium

——

none

   

110

Ds

Darmstadtium

——

none

   

105

Db

Dubnium

——

none

   

99

Es

Einsteinium

——

none

   

100

Fm

Fermium

——

none

   

108

Hs

Hassium

——

none

   

103

Lr

Lawrencium

——

none

   

109

Mt

Meitnerium

——

none

   

101

Md

Mendelevium

——

none

   

102

No

Nobelium

——

none

   

111

Rg

Roentgenium

——

none

   

104

Rf

Rutherfordium

——

none

   

106

Sg

Seaborgium

——

none

   

112

Uub

Ununbiium

——

none

   

114

Uuq

Ununquadium

——

none

   

Data taken from John Emsley, Nature's Building Blocks:  An A-Z Guide to the Elements.  Oxford:  Oxford University Press, 2001 and John Emsley, The Elements, 3rd edition.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1998.

 

 

 

Abundances of the Elements in the Human Body

Atomic

Number

Symbol

Name

Relative

Abundance

Amount

(grams)

8 O Oxygen 1 43000
6 C Carbon 2 16000
1 H Hydrogen 3 7000
7 N Nitrogen 4 1800
20 Ca Calcium 5 1200
15 P Phosphorus 6 780
16 S Sulfur 7 140
19 K Potassium 8 110 - 140
11 Na Sodium 9 100
17 Cl Chlorine 10 95
12 Mg Magnesium 11 25
26 Fe Iron 12 4
9 F Fluorine 13 3 - 6
30 Zn Zinc 14 2.3
14 Si Silicon 15 1
22 Ti Titanium 16 0.7
37 Rb Rubidium 17 0.68
38 Sr Strontium 18 0.32
35 Br Bromine 19 0.26
82 Pb Lead 20 0.12
29 Cu Copper 21 0.07
58 Ce Cerium 22 0.04
90 Th Thorium 23 0.04
50 Sn Tin 24 0.03
56 Ba Barium 25 0.022
48 Cd Cadmium 26 0.02
74 W Tungsten 27 0.02
5 B Boron 28 0.018
28 Ni Nickel 29 0.015
34 Se Selenium 30 0.014
25 Mn Manganese 31 0.012
53 I Iodine 32 0.01 - 0.02
33 As Arsenic 33 0.007
3 Li Lithium 34 0.007
80 Hg Mercury 35 0.006
55 Cs Cesium 36 0.006
32 Ge Germanium 37 0.005
42 Mo Molybdenum 38 0.005
47 Ag Silver 39 0.002
51 Sb Antimony 40 0.002
41 Nb Niobium 41 0.0015
24 Cr Chromium 42 0.001 - 0.002
27 Co Cobalt 43 0.001 - 0.002
40 Zr Zirconium 44 0.001
57 La Lanthanum 45 0.001
31 Ga Gallium 46 <0.001
52 Te Tellurium 47 0.0007
13 Al Aluminum 48 0.0006
39 Y Yttrium 49 0.0005
81 Tl Thallium 50 0.0005
83 Bi Bismuth 51 <0.0005
49 In Indium 52 0.0004
21 Sc Scandium 53 0.0002
73 Ta Tantalum 54 0.0002
79 Au Gold 55 <0.0002
23 V Vanadium 56 0.0001
92 U Uranium 57 0.0001
4 Be Beryllium 58 3.50x10-5
88 Ra Radium 59 3.00x10-11
The following elements are found in only trace
amounts in the human body
18 Ar Argon —— traces
66 Dy Dysprosium —— traces
68 Er Erbium —— traces
63 Eu Europium —— traces
64 Gd Gadolinium —— traces
72 Hf Hafnium —— traces
2 He Helium —— traces
67 Ho Holmium —— traces
77 Ir Iridium —— traces
36 Kr Krypton —— traces
71 Lu Lutetium —— traces
60 Nd Neodymium —— traces
10 Ne Neon —— traces
76 Os Osmium —— traces
46 Pd Palladium —— traces
78 Pt Platinum —— traces
59 Pr Praseodymium —— traces
75 Re Rhenium —— traces
45 Rh Rhodium —— traces
44 Ru Ruthenium —— traces
62 Sm Samarium —— traces
65 Tb Terbium —— traces
69 Tm Thulium —— traces
54 Xe Xenon —— traces
70 Yb Ytterbium —— traces
The following elements are either radioactive, or are produced
artificially,and are not normally found in the human body
(although some do have medical applications)
89 Ac Actinium  —— none
95 Am Americium  —— none
85 At Astatine  —— none
97 Bk Berkelium  —— none
107 Bh Bohrium  —— none
98 Cf Californium  —— none
96 Cm Curium  —— none
110 Ds Darmstadtium  —— none
105 Db Dubnium  —— none
99 Es Einsteinium  —— none
100 Fm Fermium  —— none
87 Fr Francium  —— none
108 Hs Hassium  —— none
103 Lr Lawrencium  —— none
109 Mt Meitnerium  —— none
101 Md Mendelevium  —— none
93 Np Neptunium  —— none
102 No Nobelium  —— none
94 Pu Plutonium  —— none
84 Po Polonium  —— none
61 Pm Promethium  —— none
91 Pa Protactinium  —— none
86 Rn Radon  —— none
111 Rg Roentgenium  —— none
104 Rf Rutherfordium  —— none
106 Sg Seaborgium  —— none
43 Tc Technetium  —— none
112 Uub Ununbiium  —— none
114 Uuq Ununquadium —— none

Data taken from John Emsley, Nature's Building Blocks:  An A-Z Guide to the Elements.  Oxford:  Oxford University Press, 2001.