Physical States — Melting Points, Boiling Points, and Densities

1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A
(1) (2) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18)
3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 1B 2B
(3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)
1 H He
2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
6 Cs Ba La   Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
7 Fr Ra Ac   Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uuq
6   Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
7   Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

  

Key:   solid at 22C   liquid at 22C
    gas at 22C     liquid at 30C

 

In the periodic table above, black squares indicate elements which are solids at room temperature (about 22C)*, those in blue squares are liquids at room temperature, and those in red squares are gases at room temperature.

Most of the metals are solids under "ordinary" conditions (i.e., 25C, 1 atmosphere of pressure, etc.), with the exception of mercury (Hg, element 80), which solidifies at -39C, and is a freely-flowing liquid at room temperature.  Gallium (Ga, element 31) melts at 30C, slightly above room temperature, but is often indicated as a liquid on periodic tables, since the solid metal literally melts when held in the hand (since body temperature is about 37C).  (Since cesium melts at 28C, and francium at 27C, they are also indicated in blue on some tables, but anyone who holds cesium in their hands won't be holding much of anything afterwards!  See the page on alkali metals for more on cesium's high reactivity.)

Several of the nonmetals are gases in their elemental form.  Elemental hydrogen (H, element 1), nitrogen (N, element 7), oxygen (O, element 8), fluorine (F, element 9), and chlorine (Cl, element 17) are all gases at room temperature, and are found as diatomic molecules (H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2).  Bromine (Br, element 35), also found as a diatomic molecule (Br2), is a liquid at room temperature, solidifying at -7.2C.  The noble gases of Group 8A (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn) are all gases at room temperature (as the name of the group implies); since they are all unreactive, monatomic elements, their boiling points are extremely low.

Below is a table of the melting points, boiling points, and densities of the elements:

 

Atomic
Number

Symbol

Name

Melting
Point
(C)

Boiling
Point
(C)

Density
(g/cm3)
(at 293 K)

1

H

Hydrogen

-259.14 -252.87 0.00008988 (gas, 273K)

2

He

Helium

-272.20 (under pressure) -268.934 0.0001785 (gas, 273K)

3

Li

Lithium

180.54 1347 0.534

4

Be

Beryllium

1278 2970 1.8477

5

B

Boron

2300 3658 2.34

6

C

Carbon

3527 4827
(sublimes)
2.260 (graphite)
3.513 (diamond)

7

N

Nitrogen

-209.86 -195.8 0.0012506 (gas, 273K)

8

O

Oxygen

-218.4 -182.96 0.001429 (gas, 273K)

9

F

Fluorine

-219.62 -188.14 0.001696 (gas, 273K)

10

Ne

Neon

-248.67 -246.05 0.00089994 (gas, 273K)

11

Na

Sodium

97.81 882.9 0.971

12

Mg

Magnesium

648.8 1090 1.738

13

Al

Aluminum

660.37 2467 2.698

14

Si

Silicon

1410 2355 2.329

15

P

Phosphorus

44.1 (white)
410 (red, under pressure)
280 (white) 1.82 (white)

16

S

Sulfur

113 (α)
119 (b)
106.8 (g)
444.67 2.070 (α)
1.957 (b)

17

Cl

Chlorine

-100.98 -33.97 0.003214 (gas, 273K)

18

Ar

Argon

-189.37 -185.86 0.001784 (gas, 273K)

19

K

Potassium

63.65 774 0.862

20

Ca

Calcium

839 1484 1.55

21

Sc

Scandium

1541 2831 2.989

22

Ti

Titanium

1660 3287 4.54

23

V

Vanadium

1887 3377 6.11 (292 K)

24

Cr

Chromium

1857 2672 7.19

25

Mn

Manganese

1244 1962 7.44

26

Fe

Iron

1535 2750 7.874

27

Co

Cobalt

1495 2870 8.90

28

Ni

Nickel

1453 2732 8.902 (298 K)

29

Cu

Copper

1083.4 2567 8.96

30

Zn

Zinc

419.58 907 7.133

31

Ga

Gallium

29.78 2403 5.907

32

Ge

Germanium

937.4 2830 5.323

33

As

Arsenic

817 (under pressure) 616 (sublimes) 5.78 (α)

34

Se

Selenium

217 684.9 4.79

35

Br

Bromine

-7.3 58.78 3.1226

36

Kr

Krypton

-156.6 -152.30 0.0037493 (gas, 273 K)

37

Rb

Rubidium

39.0 688 1.532

38

Sr

Strontium

769 1384 2.54

39

Y

Yttrium

1522 3338 4.469

40

Zr

Zirconium

1852 4377 6.506

41

Nb

Niobium

2468 4742 8.57

42

Mo

Molybdenum

2617 4612 10.22

43

Tc

Technetium

2172 4877 11.5 (est.)

44

Ru

Ruthenium

2310 3900 12.37

45

Rh

Rhodium

1966 3727 12.41

46

Pd

Palladium

1552 3140 12.02

47

Ag

Silver

961.93 2212 10.5

48

Cd

Cadmium

320.9 765 8.65

49

In

Indium

156.17 2080 7.31 (298 K)

50

Sn

Tin

231.97 2270 5.75 (α)
7.31 (b)

51

Sb

Antimony

630.74 1635 6.691

52

Te

Tellurium

449.5 989.8 6.24

53

I

Iodine

113.5 184.35 4.93

54

Xe

Xenon

-111.9 -107.1 0.0058971 (gas, 273 K)

55

Cs

Cesium

28.40 678.4 1.873

56

Ba

Barium

729 1637 3.594

57

La

Lanthanum

921 3457 6.145 (298 K)

58

Ce

Cerium

799 3426 8.24 (a, 298 K)

59

Pr

Praseodymium

931 3512 6.773

60

Nd

Neodymium

1021 3068 7.007

61

Pm

Promethium

1168 ca. 2727 7.22 (298 K)

62

Sm

Samarium

1077 1791 7.52

63

Eu

Europium

822 1597 5.243

64

Gd

Gadolinium

1313 3266 7.9004 (298 K)

65

Tb

Terbium

1356 3123 8.229

66

Dy

Dysprosium

1412 2562 8.55

67

Ho

Holmium

1474 2695 8.795 (298 K)

68

Er

Erbium

1529 2863 9.066 (298 K)

69

Tm

Thulium

1545 1947 9.321

70

Yb

Ytterbium

824 1193 6.965

71

Lu

Lutetium

1663 3395 9.84 (298 K)

72

Hf

Hafnium

2230 5197 13.31

73

Ta

Tantalum

2996 5425 16.654

74

W

Tungsten

3407 5657 19.3

75

Re

Rhenium

3180 5627 21.02

76

Os

Osmium

3054 5027 22.59

77

Ir

Iridium

2410 4130 22.56 (290 K)

78

Pt

Platinum

1772 3827 21.45

79

Au

Gold

1064.43 2807 19.32

80

Hg

Mercury

-38.87 356.58 13.546

81

Tl

Thallium

303.5 1457 11.85

82

Pb

Lead

327.50 1740 11.35

83

Bi

Bismuth

271.3 1610 9.747

84

Po

Polonium

254 962 9.32

85

At

Astatine

302 337 n/a

86

Rn

Radon

-71 -61.8 0.00973 (gas, 273 K)

87

Fr

Francium

27 677 n/a

88

Ra

Radium

700 1140 5.00

89

Ac

Actinium

1047 3197 10.06

90

Th

Thorium

1750 4787 11.72

91

Pa

Protactinium

1840 4027 15.37

92

U

Uranium

1132.3 3745 18.95

93

Np

Neptunium

640 3902 20.25

94

Pu

Plutonium

641 3232 19.84 (α, 298 K)

95

Am

Americium

1172 2607 13.67

96

Cm

Curium

1337 n/a 13.3

97

Bk

Berkelium

1047 n/a 14.79

98

Cf

Californium

897 n/a n/a

99

Es

Einsteinium

857 n/a n/a

100

Fm

Fermium

n/a n/a n/a

101

Md

Mendelevium

n/a n/a n/a

102

No

Nobelium

n/a n/a n/a

103

Lr

Lawrencium

n/a n/a n/a

104

Rf

Rutherfordium

2100 (est.) 5500 (est.) 23 (est.)

105

Db

Dubnium

n/a n/a 29

106

Sg

Seaborgium

n/a n/a 35 (est.)

107

Bh

Bohrium

n/a n/a 37 (est.)

108

Hs

Hassium

n/a n/a 41

109

Mt

Meitnerium

n/a n/a n/a

110

Uun

Ununnilium

n/a n/a n/a

111

Uuu

Unununium

n/a n/a n/a

112

Uub

Ununbiium

n/a n/a n/a

113

——

———

———

———

114

Uuq

Ununquadium

n/a n/a n/a

Data taken from John Emsley, The Elements, 3rd edition.  Oxford:  Clarendon Press, 1998.

 

 

 

 

 

 

* It doesn't matter what temperature a room is; it's always room temperature.

Stephen Wright